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What is fascism?

Leonid Veselov
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What is fascism?

The word fascism comes from the Italian word "fascio", which means "union." This is a political science term that refers to specific, far-right political movements, ideologies and political regimes of a dictatorial type. In addition, fascism means the Italian political mass movement led by Benito Mussolini in the 1920s and 1940s. The name of the radical organization Mussolini sounded like �Fascio di combattimento�, which means �Union of struggle�.

In turn, the word "fascio", "union", comes from the Latin "fascis", which means "bundle" or "bundle". The symbol of the bundle or bundle many years ago was designated Magistrate power. Honorary guards of the highest magistrates of the Roman Republic wore the emblem of "fascia" - a bundle of rods and an ax stuck into it.

There are quite a few disputes about what fascism is and what definitions and movements it includes. The researchers of the former USSR, Russia, the CIS countries, as well as a number of Western countries often imply fascism, in addition to the Mussolini regime, also national socialism (Nazism) in Germany, the Portuguese regime of the New State, Romanian, Bulgarian and Hungarian versions of fascism and their derivatives.

The main elements of fascism

  • Anticommunism and ultra-right politics;
  • Traditionalism (practical wisdom is placed above the idea);
  • Extremism (adherence to extreme views and measures) and radical nationalism;
  • Statism (the ideology of the absolute power of the state and the subordination of the person to him);
  • Corporatism (members of society are social cells, not people individually);
  • Elements of populism (the appeal of the head of state to the broad masses of the people);
  • Militarism (the focus of state ideology on the constant build-up of military power);
  • Leaderism (focus on the approval of the individual to the rank of a permanent, indisputable leader).

Often there are difficulties in order to determine how fascism differs from Nazism. In fact, these movements are very similar in many respects. Adolf Hitler recognized the serious influence of fascism on the formation of the National Socialist Party, which inspired its leaders.

Nevertheless, these concepts have key differences. National Socialism looked primarily at the human race, preferring the Aryans to all other peoples. Fascism was international and appreciated the spirit and abilities of man, while for Nazism nationality was in the first place.


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