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What are group decision making methods?

Group Solution Phenomenon


For the first time, experiments with such a socio-psychological phenomenon as a group decision were conducted in the United States during the Second World War. At that time, the industry was faced with the task of changing the attitude of customers towards certain foods and, in particular, by-products with which they tried to replace meat. The experiment involved several groups of housewives. One group only lectured about the benefits of this type of product and the desirability of purchasing by-products instead of meat, in the other several groups discussions and discussions were held, in which all members of the group participated. After some time, it turned out that in the first group, the opinion on the proposed new products changed only by 3%, while in the other groups, the loyalty to by-products increased by 32%.
Psychologists who studied this phenomenon explained this phenomenon to the fact that the passive participants in the discussion from the first group made their own decisions, without social support and based only on their past experience.The members of the group discussions felt responsible for making a common decision, and this weakened the inertia of thinking and resistance to innovation. When everyone saw that the other members of the group were also leaning towards a certain decision, this reinforced his own position. This decision was not imposed and that is why it was taken by the group.

Group decision methods


Currently, for making group decisions, several basic methods are used. For example, the Brainstorming or Consensus method is based on an open discussion of the initial unsystematic individual ideas, on the basis of which a unified opinion or decision is then developed. In some cases, opinions are expressed in writing, and five rounds of discussion are held. This version of Brainstorming is called "635".
When there is plenty of time for discussion, the Target Discussion Method is used. A group decision is made in the course of an open discussion between experts and is determined by open voting. The disadvantage of it is openness, which in some cases can lead to opposition from authorities.One of the effective methods is the �Method of Inversion�, when members of a group can express any associative opinions, even if they are absurd and illogical. For this method, the role of the head is very important - it requires great competence and special attention.
To popular can be attributed, and "Method Delphi", which uses multiple anonymous individual statements, after which the discussion is held in writing. After several rounds, the participants, as a rule, manage to find a common solution to their problem.
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