The effectiveness of the human body
Interdependence. The muscle strength and endurance of a particular muscle or muscle group is interrelated. For example (take an isotonic force), a muscle capable of a maximum force of 90 kg with a full range of motion can exert a force of 20 kg more than a muscle capable of a maximum force of 40 kg. The rest of the components of physical fitness are quite independent of each other.
A person’s physical abilities are limited not only by his physical development, but also his motor abilities: coordination, balance, dexterity, reaction time, speed, movement time (i.e. speed of movement of a part of the body) and power (i.e. ability to explosive movement ).
The effectiveness of any system is measured by the amount of output energy (work), which it gives out, in relation to the amount of energy (fuel) that it consumes. The effectiveness of the system may vary depending on how it relates to its limits.The closer it is to the maximum energy output, the more input units are required to produce each additional output unit. But all systems are more or less inefficient in their entire output range, i.e., all give less than 100% return. The effectiveness of the human body is in the range of 16 to 27%, which looks rather bad compared to some products of the human mind. But with the help of regular exercise, you can increase the efficiency of the body to 56%, which exceeds the efficiency of many machines.
Even if all people were developed physically as possible, their physical abilities in the sense of strength, speed and endurance would not be equal. Here are the main factors limiting the potential of the physical form of a person:
age: various aspects of physical fitness reach their peak at different times - the speed is maximum at the beginning of the adult period of life, strength - by the age of 30, and endurance - in adulthood. The effectiveness of the human body gradually decreases with age, and with it the parameters of physical fitness change;
floor:men have a great potential for strength and speed,than women; women are better able to withstand temperature extremes and have a longer life expectancy, so that the parameters of the individual physical form are different for both sexes;
Factors affecting physical fitness
Muscle strength: a comparison of men and women
Skeletal muscle can produce a force in the region of 3-8 kg per square centimeter of cross section.
Men are usually 30-50% stronger than women, when the total muscle strength is compared based on the absolute magnitude of the applied force. But the difference is noticeably reduced when the force is evaluated in relation to the cross-sectional area of the muscle. In the experiment comparing the strength of the flexor muscles of the arm in men and women with respect to the cross-sectional area, only a slight difference was noted (M. Ikai and Fukunaga T. Calculation of muscle strength per unit cross-sectional area of a human muscle using ultrasound measurements. Arbeitsphysiologie, 26: 26, 1968.)
health: good physical condition and poor health seem to be mutually exclusive, but you can be sick and not be aware of it, look supposedly in good physical shape.A man in good physical condition shows no obvious signs of illness, and his physical and mental functions correspond to the average figures for his age group;
nutrition: a healthy diet is important for achieving and maintaining physical fitness;
weight: a man whose weight is significantly higher than desired for his height and build, is always under the burden of excess weight. A man whose weight is significantly lower than the optimal one lacks the ability to function with maximum efficiency;
regular physical activity: the physical form can be maintained only with regular exercise of the body. With a lack of activity, the body atrophies - muscle weakness is followed by bed restraint;
sleep: in order to function with optimal efficiency, the body and mind need adequate rest.
Any muscle effort requires a certain amount of energy, and this requirement of providing the necessary energy is imposed on the rest of the body. When such a requirement is distributed from a large number of muscles of the body during a period of time, the effect of this may be very noticeable.
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