Technology of tomato processing
Tomato processing technology: the Hungarian company Lang supplies the lines of two modifications RZO-1 and RZO-3, the raw material capacity is 300 tons / day. Scheme of a two-body evaporative plant АС-200. Each body consists of a concentrator 1, which contains 177 tubes with a diameter of 30 mm, a separator 2 and a circulation pipe 3. The second body has a larger heating surface area of 10 m and a diameter of the circulation pipe. In the process of work, the steam with a pressure of 0.15-0.20 MPa enters the intertubular space of the concentrator of the first case. Tomato paste in the tube space boils and rises up through the tubes; separating from the steam, falls into the separator, and juice pairs with a temperature of 86 ° C enter the heating of the concentrator of the second housing. The pressure in the separator of the first casing is kept below atmospheric within -29.4 ± 10 kPa, and the boiling point of the mass is 86 ± 2 ° C. In the separator of the second housing, the tomato mass boils at a temperature of 46 ± 2 ° C, the residual pressure is 11.2 ± 10 kPa.Juice pairs from the separator of the second body are sent to the condenser, where, coming into contact with cold water, they are condensed and pumped out using an air vacuum pump. In the first case, a natural mass circulation takes place, boiling occurs up to a mass fraction of dry substances of 8 ± 1%. In the second case, the viscosity of the mass increases, the circulation is forced by a pump that pushes the mass through the concentrator tubes at high speed. Upon reaching a mass fraction of dry substances of 30 + 2%, which is controlled by an automatic refractometer, the paste is unloaded.
For tomato harvesting machines that are characterized by a higher fiber content, higher viscosity and lower pulp flowability, it is recommended to evaporate moisture in counter-current vacuum evaporators. The movement of the tomato mass in them is opposite to the direction of the heating steam.
Vacuum-evaporating station AC-550 countercurrent type. It consists of an expander, two bodies and a barometric condenser. Tomato pulp is heated to 125 ° C in a sterilizer, kept for 70 s in soaker 2 and fed first to expander 3, where it is cooled under vacuum from 125 to 90 ° C.Then, the tomato mass from the expander due to the pressure difference enters the first building of the station, consisting of hub 4 and separator 5. In this case, natural circulation of the mass occurs, moisture is removed at a temperature of 45 to 55 ° C and pressure below atmospheric (-88 kPa) . At the same time, the mass fraction of dry substances in the product increases from 5 to 8-9%. The heating of the concentrator of the first case is carried out by secondary pairs coming from the expander and the separator of the second case 7, and the juice pairs from the separator of the first case are diverted to a barometric condenser 8. A pump is used to transfer the semi-concentrate from the first case to the second. The mass is heated in the concentrator 6 of the second building by direct steam with a pressure of 0.10 MPa. In the second case the mass is welded at 83 ± 2 ° С and the residual pressure 47 ± 3,0 kPa to the final mass fraction of solids 30 ± 2%. The product is circulated by means of a pump.
Thus, in this evaporating plant, the moisture removal from the tomato pulp in the first casing occurs at a low temperature, and in the second case, when the mass fraction of solids increases at a higher temperature.This allows you to increase the coefficient of heat-154 cottages and evaporative ability of heating surfaces, reduce carbon deposits and reduce equipment downtime associated with its cleaning from carbon.
According to the counter-current scheme, vacuum-evaporation units of the firm “Lang” (Hungary) P8, P16, P24, P32, P48 work. The productivity of raw materials, respectively, 80,160, 240, 430,480 tons / day.
Vacuum evaporating stations of the countercurrent type are also manufactured by other companies.
Heating, packaging and sterilization. Before packing, tomato puree and tomato paste are heated in multi-way tubular heat exchangers, screw-type heaters, as well as in VNIIKOP devices, boules with a double-walled heating surface and a stirrer.
If tomato paste or mashed potatoes are pasteurized in continuously operating machines, then the packing temperature should be 90 to 93 ± 2 ° C.
Tomato puree and paste are packed in glass or metal lacquered containers with a capacity of not more than 10 dm3on automatic fillers for thick masses. Tomato paste with a mass fraction of dry substances 40% Packed in aluminum tubes.
When canning tomato paste with salt, it is heated to 85 ° C, mixed with 8-10% salt in a mixer with a mixer, cooled to 58 ± 2 "C and packed in wooden or metal barrels.Salt paste is produced with a mass fraction of dry substances of 27.32 and 37%.
Tomato products are capped on automatic sealing machines with lacquered metal lids and sent for sterilization into autoclaves and continuously operating apparatuses of Unity (Yugoslavia), Hunister (Hungary), etc. Sterilize tomato paste in autoclaves at 100 ° C for 10-35 min, and in continuously operating devices at 95 ° C pasteurization time is 25 minutes.
Using the method of canning by hot filling, the tomato mass is heated to 94 + 2 ° C, packed in a large tin container 15 or in a glass container 1—82-10000. The bottles are turned to the lying position, and the metal cans on the lid are kept for 20–25 minutes for additional sterilization of the lid and the container space not filled with the product.
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