Pneumonia: what it is, symptoms, signs, treatment
What is pneumonia and how to recognize it
Inflammation of the lungs, or pneumonia, is an infectious disease in the lung tissue, the causative agents of which can be various bacteria, for example, staphylococcus or pneumococcus, viruses and microplasmas. However, in most cases, the disease affects the lungs after various immunological disorders: flu, cold, infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Depending on the cause of the onset, pneumonia can manifest itself in different ways, but the common symptoms that cannot be ignored are:
- increased body temperature;
- excessive sweating;
- restless sleep;
- shortness of breath, shortness of breath;
- fast fatiguability.
Bacterial and viral pneumonia, as a separate disease, is transmitted by airborne droplets and, with weakened immunity, usually manifests itself with a sudden high fever, which is poorly confused by antipyretic drugs, and dry cough.Often pneumonia accompanied by pain in the chest, aggravated by sneezing or deep breathing. After a couple of days, the skin may become paler, with a bright blush appearing on the cheeks, appetite is lost, and the urine becomes dark.
It is much more difficult to self-recognize the inflammation of the lungs that occurs against the background of other diseases that weaken the human immune system, such as SARS or influenza. The cause for alarm should be a prolonged (more than a week) increased body temperature, dry or sputum cough, feeling of indisposition, pain when breathing, cyanosis of the skin, shortness of breath. In this case, even if it all started with a common cold, as confirmed by the doctor, it is better to be safe and return to the medical institution.
Pneumonia is not in vain considered an insidious disease - the process of inflammation of the lung tissue can proceed sluggishly, become more active or abruptly subside, so that in a few days it can appear in such an acute form that it is already difficult to help the patient. As a complication, pleurisy or lung abscess can begin, and in the most severe cases, even death is possible.
How to treat pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs today is successfully treated with medicines, if you go to a doctor in time.Diagnosis of this disease is carried out on the basis of complaints of the patient, his external examination and x-ray examination of the lungs and upper respiratory tract. It is possible to assign additional tests: bacteriological examination of sputum, bronchoscopy, complete blood count, allowing more accurate diagnosis and determine the type of pneumonia.
Depending on the complexity of the course of the disease, pneumonia is treated in stationary conditions or at home. As a drug therapy, antibacterial drugs are prescribed, sometimes at the same time combining two antibiotics from different groups, expectorant and sputum-reducing drugs, and antipyretic drugs. At the same time or immediately after, vitamin-mineral complexes and probiotics can be prescribed to normalize the intestinal microflora. In severe cases that require inpatient treatment, means are used to improve blood microcirculation and cardiac activity, infusion therapy, and intravenous corticosteroids.
Patients with pneumonia for successful recovery and elimination of dangerous consequences, in addition to medication, require bed rest, maintaining indoor cleanliness, optimum temperature and humidity.Of great importance is the diet - light food, consisting of balanced low-fat dishes: vegetable soups, broths on white meat, poultry, vegetables, fish. The amount of carbohydrates at the time of treatment should be limited, while drinking is required in large quantities in order to recover the moisture lost in the sweating.
It is very important to take treatment seriously and not to carry pneumonia on the legs even at a low temperature - at best, it will take much longer to cope with pneumonia, at worst - death is possible.
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