How to put a shot?
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Each person should be able to do intramuscular injections. These skills will be useful in emergency situations when a medical professional may simply not be near, as well as in those cases when traveling for the sake of one simple intramuscular injection to the hospital will be extremely difficult for you. However, intravenous shots are best not done at home, unless it is dictated by serious circumstances.
When performing any injection, hygiene is of paramount importance. Do everything thoughtfully, carefully. You will need a vial of medicine, a syringe, alcohol, and sterile cotton. Syringes (for both muscle and vein) will need to choose the usual - 2, 3, 5 or more cubes. Insulin syringes, which are distinguished by a small volume and a very thin short needle, are suitable for intramuscular injections for small children.
- Check the name of the medicine on the ampoule.
- Take the package with a syringe. Break it, take the syringe by the base (the tip of the piston) and take it out of the package.Insert the needle into the narrow end. Do not remove the needle cap yet. Put the syringe on a clean napkin or plate.
- Moisten cotton wool with alcohol and wipe your palms.
- Take the ampoule, wipe it with another cotton swab dipped in alcohol in the place where you will split the head. Today, most ampoules do not require the use of a special knife, and therefore clutching the head of the ampoule with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol, break it off. If it is necessary in your case, then after disinfecting the ampoule, make a couple of sharp incisions around the head of the ampoule. After that, wrap this place with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol, slightly wipe and then break off the head with a sharp, but not too strong movement.
- Now take the syringe. Holding the needle by the base (do not touch the metal part with your hands!), Remove the cap. Insert the needle into the ampoule, take the medicine. Put the cap back on. Put the syringe on a napkin.
- Prepare the patient. To do this, lay it on a horizontal surface. If this is not possible, then he can simply lean forward. Intramuscular injections are performed mainly in the buttock (only the vaccination compositions are injected into the shoulder). Let the patient slightly lower her clothes.
Before you put the injection, you must schedule an injection site. To do this, visually divide the buttock with two perpendicular lines into four parts. You can prick only the upper extreme lobe (for the right buttock, it will be the upper right, for the left - the upper left). This is a place where there are no large blood vessels and nerves - the injection will be as safe as possible. Otherwise, you risk serious damage to human health.
If the injection is not the first, then the injection site should be palpated to make sure that there are no seals under the skin (cones that may have appeared after the previous injection). If there are bruises, bumps, etc., then you need to choose a nearby place in the already mentioned segment of the buttocks or make an injection to another buttock.
- Moisten a piece of cotton in alcohol and wipe the injection site.
- Take a syringe and another piece of alcohol cotton. Remove the cap from the needle. Slowly push the air out of the syringe with a smooth, slow pressing on the plunger - a couple of drops of medicine should come out of the needle.
- Place a non-working hand on your buttock so you can feel whether your muscles are tense or relaxed.If they are tense, then ask the person to relax.
- With the other hand, hold the syringe to the buttock and with a confident movement, insert the needle into the skin so that approximately 5 mm remain above the skin. To make sure that you do not get into the vessel, slightly pull the plunger of the syringe towards you. If the blood does not get inside, then you can safely continue the injection. If you hit, you need to remove the needle, take a new syringe, needle, ampoule and repeat all the preparatory measures, choosing a better place for the injection.
- It is necessary to inject the medicine gradually, not too quickly.
- After the injection, remove the needle and immediately close the injection site with a previously prepared cotton swab with alcohol.
The preparatory work will be similar. In addition to the products listed above, you will also need a chair or couch so that the patient can take a comfortable position, as well as a tourniquet.
The characteristics of the vein are important. It can be well contoured (its outlines are clearly visible, it is wide and voluminous, it is well palpable), as well as medium contoured and weakly contoured. It will be difficult for an ordinary person to give an injection even to the first type of vein, but only a doctor can prick into a vein with insufficient contour.Without experience, special skills, you can harm a person by injuring a vein or by injecting medicine into the vein, but under the skin. Therefore, these types of injections, with the exception of critical cases, are always better to trust doctors.
- Put the person on the chair sideways so that he puts his hand into which the injection will be made, on the back, or lay him on the couch. Then it is better to put a roller under the elbow.
- Free up space for injections from clothing. At a distance of about 7-10 cm from the elbow (above), apply a tourniquet.
- Ask the patient to work with his fist - let him intensely squeeze and unclench the brush. This will promote blood flow to the veins of the arm.
- Treat the injection site with cotton wool moistened with alcohol.
- Ask the patient to make a fist. Palpate the vein, insert the needle into it 1/3 the length. Pull the plunger of the syringe a little towards yourself - if blood appears in the syringe, it means that you have got to the right place. Ask the patient to open the fist, and untie the harness with your free hand. Slowly inject the drug into the vein. Try not to change the needle slope.
- Injecting the medicine, press the injection site with cotton wool and alcohol and carefully remove the needle.
- Ask the person to bend the arm in the elbow and sit like this for 5-7 minutes (the cotton wool cannot be removed at the same time). This is done so that the blood has time to curl up and does not stain the clothes.
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