How to make a ladder?
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If you have a two-story house or a house with an attic, you cannot do without a ladder. If you have never built a ladder, but would like to learn, our article on how to make a ladder with your own hands will help you with this. First, we will talk about the basic terms in order to make it easier for you to read the article and subsequently master the special literature on certain types of stairs. And then we touch on some common points when building any staircase.
When they talk about the stairs, they usually mean a march span, that is, a straight line of steps. Marching spans are separated by turning platforms. Turning pads are usually used when you need to build a large staircase - with supporting pads between floors. For fixing the steps are used, the so-called skewers - thick wooden or metal beams. Now about the steps. Actually the step is the horizontal part of the step, but the vertical part is called the riser.The lower and upper steps of the main flight are called the fascia steps, and the steps by which the stairs are rotated (for example, the spiral one) are called transom ones. And a couple of terms. The supports for the railing are called balusters, and the side beams connecting the steps are called the bowstring.
How to make a ladder - calculations?
I must say that in the construction of various types of stairs there are a lot of common points. As for the choice of the material of manufacture, the shape of the stairs, as well as the decorative elements, everything here entirely depends on your taste. Turning to the calculations, first of all, you need to determine the location of the stairs in the house and its configuration. In some cases, it is convenient to make a flight of stairs, and sometimes the spiral staircase would be the best option. As for the flight of stairs, then in a large house you can consider the option of a two-flight staircase with a turntable. You also need to choose the optimum height and width of the steps, which we will discuss below. Separately, the question of the geometry of the staircase opening. For staircases, it can be a rectangle or a square, and for spiral staircases it can be a circle and less often an oval.Now about the calculation of the steps. Take into account, for a start, the following parameters: height - 25 cm and width - 40 cm. If you use a structure with front-end steps, then in the middle they should also have the same width as the usual ones - that is 40 cm.
How to make a ladder - materials
The choice of materials is a matter of taste as well as financial freedom. Those who are not limited in the means, it is possible to make a ladder of oak. As for other suitable materials, it can be metal and glass, and of less expensive types of wood - pine, beech or linden. Whatever material you choose, the most important thing is to match the interior of the house. Pine stairs, for example, will look great in a small wooden house, and oak - in a spacious and luxuriously furnished room. By the way, glass and metal are often used for the construction of stairs without risers. We should also say if the house has a wooden floor. In this case, the perfect solution would be the manufacture of steps, for example, from rauspunta - high-quality solid boards. Balusters can be made of bars, and the railings themselves - from a blockhouse.Blockhouse is a special type of finishing boards, so-called, rounded logs. This design will look very solid.
Decorative and supporting elements
Let's talk about it, based on how to make a wooden staircase. As for decorative elements, everything is quite simple here - you can easily choose them in almost any hardware store. Next, we proceed to the manufacture of steps, for which we prepare a predetermined number of canvases - for ordinary and zabezhnyh steps. Do not forget to process the edges of the steps with a cutter so that they have an attractive and neat appearance. Now you need to decide how we will strengthen our stairs. There are two ways - on kosourah and on the string. It all depends on how strong the walls are in the house. If the walls are strong, then the method of attachment does not matter, in the same case, if you are not sure whether the walls will withstand such a construction, it is better to use the mount on the string. The fact is that kosoura fasten directly on the wall. In order to make a kosour, you first need to mark its location on the wall. To make a kosour, you need to take two beams 1 by 3 meters (100 by 300 cm), and to fix the steps we make rectangular grooves.The way of fastening on the bowstrings is more common, and it is possible to make such a ladder with restrictive handrails.
The first stage of installation is the installation of the support column of the stairs, as well as the risers. For fixing the structure, self-tapping screws are used, but for greater convenience, experts recommend using additional liquid nails. The fact is that the ladder fastened with liquid nails practically does not creak. If necessary, the pivoting steps are also fitted at this stage. After that, you need to make a layout kosour on the wall and finally determine the size of the steps. Then the drawing should be transferred to the blanks of kosour using tracing paper. Making notches under the steps is best with a circular saw, but you can do it with a regular hacksaw. Now we proceed to the next stage - with the help of screws we fasten the kosour to the wall and connect the steps with the kosour and among themselves in the same way. After this you need to close the bowstring open parts of the steps. And finally, the last stage of the work consists in assembling balusters, railings and, if desired, various decorative elements.
Recommendations for the manufacture of spiral staircase
The design of the spiral staircase is somewhat different from the march. The classical spiral staircase is a stand on which conical steps are fixed. At the same time, the narrow parts of the steps are attached to the stand, and the wide ones - to the string, or directly to the wall, if space geometry permits. If we are talking about a wooden spiral staircase, the best materials for its manufacture are oak, beech and pine. It is better to make the steps about 80-100 cm long and 40 cm wide in the wide and 20 cm wide in the narrow part of the steps. As in the case with the mid-flight ladder, the screw assembly must be started from the stand, for the manufacture of which the best option would be a solid and rigid metal pipe. Before installation, be sure to calculate the required number of steps, taking into account the fact that the distance between them will be on average 15-20 cm. After the steps are fixed, you need to make a railing. By the way, in the manufacture of steps you can save a lot of time, because in hardware stores today you can buy ready-made ones. As you can see, it’s not so difficult to make a staircase to the second floor, but if you haven’t figured out something, a video will always come to the rescue, how to make a staircase - after all, it’s easier for someone to read the text and someone learns better when an example before eyes.
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