How to grow seeds?
Seeds of vegetable, fruit and perennial crops, as well as garden flowers can be germinated at home, followed by planting them in open ground.
How to grow seeds: sorting and disinfection
Purchased or independently collected plant seeds, first of all, must be sorted. Large sunflower seeds - radish, peas, legumes, etc. selected "by eye", using a magnifying glass. But the seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers and other small seeds are washed in a solution of salt (1.5 teaspoons of salt per glass of water). Quality seeds will settle to the bottom, as they have a greater density than the solution, while empty ones will float upwards.
After the selection of quality seeds, it is desirable to disinfect them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (1%), in which they need to be kept for about half an hour. This will destroy the fungal diseases of plants (late blight, etc.) and pathogenic bacteria.
The seed preparation stage should be approached responsibly. After all, on how well the preparation was carried out,depends on the quality of seedlings and the power of sprouts. There are several ways to prepare seeds before germination or planting.
In order for the seeds to sprout faster, they can be pre-soaked. To do this, they are laid out on a damp, natural material and left in a warm and well-ventilated place. This contributes to the softening of the seed coat and the dissolution of certain chemicals, which speeds up the germination process. The seeds are soaked for no less than a day, after which they are immediately planted with moist.
The seeds of some plant species require cold treatment for awakening. This technique is called stratification. It is necessary mainly for perennial garden crops - grapes, apples, quinces, as well as artichokes, blueberries, blueberries, peppers, etc. Seeds will need to be placed in a damp room with low positive temperatures. For example, a seed can be mixed with wet sand (1 part seed and 3 parts sand) and placed in a basement or refrigerator.
Depending on the type of plant, the seeds are kept in the cold for a different number of days. For apple and cherry plum seeds, the period of stratification is 120 days, the seeds of cherries, plums, ashberries and chokeberries are kept in the cold for up to 180 days.The seeds of viburnum and hawthorn are most sustained - up to 240 days, and least of all - up to 80 days - seeds of rosehip, quince and barberry.
Before you grow seeds, they also use this method of preparation, such as scarification or breaking of the shell. There are chemical and mechanical types of it. At home, the latter type of scarification is more common. To do this, small seeds can be simply rubbed with hands or between two sheets of sandpaper, and the movements should not be strong, as this can damage the seeds.
You can grow prepared seeds directly in the ground, or you can on a paper towel. To do this, you need to lay the paper on a flat saucer, wet it and put the seeds on it. To simulate the conditions of the greenhouse, the saucer is placed in a bag that is tied in a knot. This mini-greenhouse put in a place with good lighting, but not under direct sunlight. After germination, the seeds are moved with tweezers into the prepared moist soil.
As for the temperature regime of seed germination, then for different types of crops the minimum parameters for germination are different indicators, for example:
- Seeds of cabbage, peas and onions sprout already at a temperature of +4 ° C;
- Seeds of bush salads, celery - at + 4.5-5 ° С;
- Beet seeds sprout at +5 ° C;
- Corn rises at +10 ° C;
- Squashes and tomatoes germinate at +11 ° C;
- The minimum temperature of the Bulgarian pepper is +13 ° C;
- Green beans, cucumbers germinate at + 14-15 ° C.
The temperature is regulated by fluorescent lights and airing.
Plant seeds usually germinate for 3 to 7 days. Most quickly (in 3 days) peas, cucumbers, zucchini, radishes, sorrel, cabbage sprout. Most of the time for germination is required seeds of pepper, celery, dill and parsley. But the seeds of tomatoes, eggplant, spinach, lettuce, carrots and beets "hatch" for 4-5 days.
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